Surgery

Abdominal Pain

When you are on call you will often get a bleep about a patient in abdominal pain. Abdominal pain can be a bit of a...

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Abdominal X-rays

The advantages of AXRs are far less radiation to patients & that they’re logistically easy to organise out of hours. Unlike CTs they do not...

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Appendicitis

Appendicitis is a one of the most common abdominal emergencies worldwide. Your aim is to be able to diagnose it, distinguish between simple and complex...

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Applying to Ophthalmology

Ophthalmology provides a great deal of variety by combining medicine, surgery & A&E. It is predominantly an outpatient specialty with plenty of opportunities to subspecialise....

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Benign Anorectal Pathology

In this article, we cover common benign anorectal pathologies including haemorrhoids, fissures & fistulas with a quick overview of their assessment & management. ContentsBasic anatomyHaemorrhoids...

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Bowel Obstruction

Bowel obstruction is a common reason for admission or complication of patients under the surgical team, but doctors don’t frequently get that much exposure to...

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Chronic Pancreatitis

Chronic pancreatitis is characterised by repeated pancreatic inflammation. This leads to the destruction of pancreatic tissue leading to irreversible loss of both endocrine and exocrine...

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Colorectal Cancer and Polyps

Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancer types seen in the western world. They are adenocarcinomas arising from adenomatous polyps in the colon...

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Common Dental Issues

A very quick guide to common issues prompting referrals to maxillofacial surgery (aka MaxFax and OMFS) This is a surgical speciality relating to the hard...

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Compartment Syndrome

Acute Compartment Syndrome is one of the few orthopaedic emergencies. If missed, it can lead to severe and life-changing consequences for the patient. This article...

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Constipation

Constipation is one of the most common complaints in hospital, especially on the geriatric wards.Failure to treat constipation can lead to longer hospital stays and...

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Deep Vein Thrombosis

A deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a condition in which a blood clot (thrombosis) forms within a deep vein and can be provoked or unprovoked...

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Diabetic Foot Ulcers

Introduction: Diabetic foot ulcerations are a significant complication of diabetes and often precede minor (below the ankle) or major (above or below the knee) amputation....

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Diarrhoea

Diarrhoea is a very common complaint and may be the reason for a patient’s admission, or develop as a new problem during an inpatient stay....

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Diplopia

Diplopia, also known as double vision, happens when there is a mismatch in images produced by the two eyes; hence there is misalignment in the...

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Diverticular Disease

Diverticulae can occur throughout the gastrointestinal tract but are more common in the sigmoid & descending colon. Whilst frequently found, usually, it is incidental and...

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ENT

In this article, we cover the main ENT situations you are likely to encounter either in A&E, during an ENT on call job or occasionally...

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Epistaxis

Epistaxis is a common presentation, especially amongst the young and elderly population. Knowing the basic management, red flags, and when to escalate is important particularly...

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Eye History & Exam

This is intended for junior doctors on the ward or in ED, covering how to approach the eye history & exam as it is often...

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Gallstone Disease

Patients regularly present under the surgical take with gall stone disease. The aim of this article is to supplement the surgical webinar series session on...

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Groin Lumps

The groin, also known as the inguinal region, extends from the anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) anterolaterally, the thigh inferiorly and the pubic tubercle medially....

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Gynaecological Examination

If the thought of conducting an intimate examination or attempting to wield (without any embarrassing pitfalls) the contraption that is the speculum is enough to...

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Haematuria

You will regularly see patients with blood in their urine, most often picked up incidentally on a urine drip. Your initial assessment should aim to...

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How to use an Ophthalmoscope

Being able to use an ophthalmoscope confidently is very important to junior doctors, especially when identifying eye emergencies. In this article, we will go through...

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Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) refers to a relapsing and remitting inflammatory disorder of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, which may be accompanied by extra-GI manifestations. ContentsWhat...

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Kidney Stones

Given how frequently patients present with renal colic, it is helpful for FY1s to understand the basic management. Specifically this article will help ensure you...

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Nasogastric Tubes

NG tubes are passed from the nose to the stomach. Depending on the material, they can stay between 2 to 6 weeks. However, they quite...

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Nausea & Vomiting

You will frequently get calls regarding nausea & vomiting: many patients present with it or develop it because of their diagnosis or treatment. You must...

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Orthogeriatrics

Fragility fractures in the elderly As a junior doctor on call, in geriatrics or in orthopaedics – you will frequently look after frail and elderly...

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Overview of eye drops

Medicines reconciliation is the process of accurately listing a person’s medicines. This often takes place when they’re admitted into a service and is an important...

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Pancreatitis

Pancreatitis is a condition characterised by the inflammation of the pancreas. These patients are usually managed conservatively. Your aim is to try to find out...

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Postnatal Patients

The management and review of postnatal women are usually straightforward. There are a few points specific to postnatal women that are important to consider, which...

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PR Bleeding

The first thing when called is to identify whether the bleeding is truly a lower GI bleed or whether it is an Upper GI Bleed as...

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Pre & Post Operative Care

As a junior doctor, you will frequently look after patients prior to and after their operation. You may be asked to clerk patients who are...

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Prescribing analgesia

When assessing pain, ensure you begin by taking a history to characterise the pain as neuropathic pain, inflammatory pain and oncological pain all respond to...

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Prescribing IV Fluids

There are certain situations where you need to prescribe IV fluids which vary from fluid resuscitation to maintenance fluids if a patient is nil-by-mouth (NBM)...

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Pulmonary embolism

A pulmonary embolism (PE) is a blocked blood vessel in your lungs, most often due to a blood clot. It is common and can be...

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Red Eye

Red eye is one of the most common eye presentations you will encounter. Whilst many will likely be referred to an opthalmologist or senior clinician,...

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Requesting scans

Requesting scans can be a scary daily occurrence for new doctors. It is one of few times where you liaise directly with a consultant. When...

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Stomas

The word stoma comes from Greek to mean “an opening”. There are many types which are formed for a variety of reasons, but here we...

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Sudden Visual Loss

Loss of vision can be a scary symptom for patients to experience, and a scary presentation for doctors to manage! You will not be expected...

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Superior Vena Cava Syndrome

SVC syndrome is an oncological emergency. There is obstruction of the superior vena cava resulting in stagnating blood and a high risk of thrombosis. Due...

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Suturing

Sutures are placed to aid with wound healing following a traumatic laceration or surgical incision and to promote haemostasis. In this article, we will look...

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Thyroid Disease

As a junior, you will frequently see patients who potentially have thyroid dysfunction. The problem is these patients often present with quite generalised symptoms and...

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Urinary Catheterisation

As an FY1 we have a list of 15 core procedures to be completed by the end of our first year. These skills include catheterisation...

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Urinary Retention

Urinary retention can be acute or chronic. When acute it occurs within a number of hours causing significant pain. In contrast, chronic retention is painless...

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Urinary Tract Infections

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) in adults are extremely common in both primary and secondary care and it is inevitable that you will be diagnosing and...

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Vaginal Bleeding

One of the most common obstetric/gynaecological presentations in a hospital/GP setting is vaginal bleeding. When women present with per vaginal (PV) bleeding it is usually...

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Vertigo

Vertigo is described as an “abnormal sensation of motion. It can occur in the absence of motion or when motion is sensed inaccurately”1 Assessing a...

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