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HIV

HIV

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a species of lentivirus that can infect humans and subsequently causes Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS).

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Endocrinology

Thyroid Disease

As a junior, you will frequently see patients who potentially have thyroid dysfunction. The problem is these patients often present

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Gastroenterology

Nutrition

Nutrition is an important aspect of a patient’s health and is overlooked during medical school as you are learning exciting

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Pancreatitis

Pancreatitis

Pancreatitis is a condition characterised by the inflammation of the pancreas. These patients are usually managed conservatively. Your aim is

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Headache

Headache

Acute headache is a common complaint that you’ll see whilst on the wards or in the acute take. Although most

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Respiratory

Acute Asthma

You are unlikely to be expected to make decisions about long term asthma management, therefore focus your efforts on learning

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Back Pain

Back Pain

In this article, we cover the assessment and management of back pain. This article forms part of a series on

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Geriatrics

Dementia

As an FY1 in hospital, you will come across lots of patients with dementia. They often have multiple problems requiring

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Diabetic Foot Ulcer

Diabetic Foot Ulcers

Introduction: Diabetic foot ulcerations are a significant complication of diabetes and often precede minor (below the ankle) or major (above or below the knee) amputation. At least 2% of people with diabetes experience new foot ulcers annually, and of these, one in 400 undergoes amputation (Kerr, M. 2019)

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Intestines

Stomas

The word stoma comes from Greek to mean “an opening”. There are many types which are formed for a variety

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Haematology

Transfusion

In this article, we will go through the three most common scenarios you will encounter. These are: (1) Does this

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Cardiology

Palpitations

Palpitations can be described as the sensation of an abnormally received heartbeat. It can be rapid, irregular, forceful or just

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Haematuria

Haematuria

You will regularly see patients with blood in their urine, most often picked up incidentally on a urine drip. Your

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Abnormal Observations

Syncope

From the Greek: Syn: together & kopein: to cut – referring to a block in blood supply from the body to the brain, most often due a drop in systemic blood pressure. It is defined as (1) temporary and transient (2) a form of loss of consciousness…

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Cardiology

Heart Failure

Heart Failure is not a diagnosis in itself, rather a collection of symptoms that require investigation to find the underlying

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Pneumonia

Pneumonia

In this article, we will focus on more practical concerns when managing a patient with pneumonia for junior doctors. Covid-19

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Electrolytes

Hypercalcaemia

Serum calcium concentration is tightly regulated between 2.1-2.6mmol/L. Severe hypercalcaemia is a life-threatening electrolyte emergency requiring prompt recognition and urgent

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Haematology

Anaemia

Perhaps the most common blood test you will review daily will be the FBC (full blood count). You will commonly

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Diabetes

DKA and HHS

You’ve found a patient is hyperglycaemic & either they are ketotic or have significant hyperglycaemia (>30mmol/L) and so you suspect DKA or

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Radiology

Pneumothorax

A pneumothorax is defined as the abnormal collection of air between the visceral and parietal space of the lung i.e.

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Gastroenterology

Upper GI bleed

These patients have the potential to become haemodynamically unstable extremely quickly; try to avoid delays in reviewing them. In-hospital mortality

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Microbiology

Sepsis

Sepsis is an infection with evidence of organ dysfunction. Septic shock is when a patient with sepsis is hypotensive despite

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Constipation

Constipation

Constipation is one of the most common complaints in hospital, especially on the geriatric wards.Failure to treat constipation can lead

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Diabetes

Hypoglycaemia

Management of low blood sugar in conscious & unconscious patients, finding common causes, adjusting medications & when to refer.

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Cardiology

ECG Basics

The electrocardiogram (ECG) is one of the most common, and important, investigations interpreted by doctors. In order to help the

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Neurology

Seizures

Scenario: You are bleeped by one of the staff nurses to review a patient on the orthopaedic ward who is

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Geriatrics

Delirium

Acute confusion, otherwise known as delirium, is very common in hospitals: 20-30% on medical wards, and between 10-50% of those

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Chest Pain

Chest Pain

As a junior doctor, you will also often assess patients complaining of chest pain in the acute admissions setting and

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Electrolytes

Hyponatraemia

Hyponatraemia (serum Sodium <135 mmol/L) is one of the most common electrolyte abnormalities you will see and so a systematic

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Falls

Falls

As an F1, you will quite frequently get bleeped to review a patient who has had a fall on the

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Insulin

Hyperglycaemia

Hyperglycaemia is something you will encounter frequently. In this article, we focus on how to approach hyperglycaemia and identify diabetic

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Respiratory

Hypoxia

As an FY1, you will be called to review hypoxic ward patients. Here we discuss common causes of generalised hypoxia

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Drowsy

Reduced GCS

As a doctor, you will frequently be called for a drowsy patient. They can vary from confused to completely unconscious.

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Fluid Balance

Fluid Balance

Almost every patient admitted to hospital receives IV fluids at some point in their journey. However, the body manages this,

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Gastroenterology

Refeeding Syndrome

Defined as a collection of electrolyte abnormalities associated with a massive intracellular shift of electrolytes. Associated with aggressive nutritional rehabilitation

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Gastroenterology

Chronic Pancreatitis

Chronic pancreatitis is characterised by repeated pancreatic inflammation. This leads to the destruction of pancreatic tissue leading to irreversible loss

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Vertigo

Vertigo

Vertigo is described as an “abnormal sensation of motion. It can occur in the absence of motion or when motion

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Gastroenterology

PEG Tubes

PEG tubes are used as long term feeding options (and medication administration) for those in whom NG tubes are unsuitable

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Rheumatology

Arthralgia

There are three joint pain calls you might receive whilst you’re on call or on the wards. We have split

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Procedures

Suturing

Sutures are placed to aid with wound healing following a traumatic laceration or surgical incision and to promote haemostasis. In

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Microbiology

CNS Infections

A CNS infection is one that involves the central nervous system in some way. This includes the meninges, cerebellum, ventricular

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Geriatrics

Applying to Geriatric Medicine

Within Geriatric Medicine you are always working as part of a multidisciplinary team and have lots of close interactions with other allied health professionals. In my experience, this means plenty of opportunity for discussion and shared decision making with colleagues, as well as being able to gain knowledge and learn from others’ expertise. This also creates a very supportive environment to work in.

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E Coli

Diarrhoea

Diarrhoea is a very common complaint and may be the reason for a patient’s admission, or develop as a new

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Electrolytes

Hypocalcaemia

Acute hypocalcaemia that is severe (<1.9 mmol/L) or symptomatic can be life-threatening and necessitates urgent treatment. It is often initially

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