General Surgery

Abdominal Pain

When you are on call you will often get a bleep about a patient in abdominal pain. Abdominal pain can be a bit of a...

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Abdominal X-rays

The advantages of AXRs are far less radiation to patients & that they’re logistically easy to organise out of hours. Unlike CTs they do not...

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Appendicitis

Appendicitis is a one of the most common abdominal emergencies worldwide. Your aim is to be able to diagnose it, distinguish between simple and complex...

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Benign Anorectal Pathology

In this article, we cover common benign anorectal pathologies including haemorrhoids, fissures & fistulas with a quick overview of their assessment & management. ContentsBasic anatomyHaemorrhoids...

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Bowel Obstruction

Bowel obstruction is a common reason for admission or complication of patients under the surgical team, but doctors don’t frequently get that much exposure to...

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Chronic Pancreatitis

Chronic pancreatitis is characterised by repeated pancreatic inflammation. This leads to the destruction of pancreatic tissue leading to irreversible loss of both endocrine and exocrine...

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Colorectal Cancer and Polyps

Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancer types seen in the western world. They are adenocarcinomas arising from adenomatous polyps in the colon...

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Constipation

Constipation is one of the most common complaints in hospital, especially on the geriatric wards.Failure to treat constipation can lead to longer hospital stays and...

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Diarrhoea

Diarrhoea is a very common complaint and may be the reason for a patient’s admission, or develop as a new problem during an inpatient stay....

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Diverticular Disease

Diverticulae can occur throughout the gastrointestinal tract but are more common in the sigmoid & descending colon. Whilst frequently found, usually, it is incidental and...

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Gallstone Disease

Patients regularly present under the surgical take with gall stone disease. The aim of this article is to supplement the surgical webinar series session on...

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Groin Lumps

The groin, also known as the inguinal region, extends from the anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) anterolaterally, the thigh inferiorly and the pubic tubercle medially....

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Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) refers to a relapsing and remitting inflammatory disorder of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, which may be accompanied by extra-GI manifestations. ContentsWhat...

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Nasogastric Tubes

NG tubes are passed from the nose to the stomach. Depending on the material, they can stay between 2 to 6 weeks. However, they quite...

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Nausea & Vomiting

You will frequently get calls regarding nausea & vomiting: many patients present with it or develop it because of their diagnosis or treatment. You must...

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Pancreatitis

Pancreatitis is a condition characterised by the inflammation of the pancreas. These patients are usually managed conservatively. Your aim is to try to find out...

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PR Bleeding

The first thing when called is to identify whether the bleeding is truly a lower GI bleed or whether it is an Upper GI Bleed as...

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Pre & Post Operative Care

As a junior doctor, you will frequently look after patients prior to and after their operation. You may be asked to clerk patients who are...

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Prescribing analgesia

When assessing pain, ensure you begin by taking a history to characterise the pain as neuropathic pain, inflammatory pain and oncological pain all respond to...

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Prescribing IV Fluids

There are certain situations where you need to prescribe IV fluids which vary from fluid resuscitation to maintenance fluids if a patient is nil-by-mouth (NBM)...

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Stomas

The word stoma comes from Greek to mean “an opening”. There are many types which are formed for a variety of reasons, but here we...

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