Endocrinology

Electrolytes

Hypocalcaemia

Acute hypocalcaemia that is severe (<1.9 mmol/L) or symptomatic can be life-threatening and necessitates urgent treatment. It is often initially

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Endocrinology

Thyroid Disease

As a junior, you will frequently see patients who potentially have thyroid dysfunction. The problem is these patients often present

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Diabetic Foot Ulcer

Diabetic Foot Ulcers

Introduction: Diabetic foot ulcerations are a significant complication of diabetes and often precede minor (below the ankle) or major (above or below the knee) amputation. At least 2% of people with diabetes experience new foot ulcers annually, and of these, one in 400 undergoes amputation (Kerr, M. 2019)

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Electrolytes

Hypercalcaemia

Serum calcium concentration is tightly regulated between 2.1-2.6mmol/L. Severe hypercalcaemia is a life-threatening electrolyte emergency requiring prompt recognition and urgent

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Diabetes

DKA and HHS

You’ve found a patient is hyperglycaemic & either they are ketotic or have significant hyperglycaemia (>30mmol/L) and so you suspect DKA or

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Electrolytes

Hyponatraemia

Hyponatraemia (serum Sodium <135 mmol/L) is one of the most common electrolyte abnormalities you will see and so a systematic

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Diabetes

Hypoglycaemia

Management of low blood sugar in conscious & unconscious patients, finding common causes, adjusting medications & when to refer.

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Insulin

Hyperglycaemia

Hyperglycaemia is something you will encounter frequently. In this article, we focus on how to approach hyperglycaemia and identify diabetic

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Fluid Balance

Fluid Balance

Almost every patient admitted to hospital receives IV fluids at some point in their journey. However, the body manages this,

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