Endocrinology

Diabetic Foot Ulcers

Introduction: Diabetic foot ulcerations are a significant complication of diabetes and often precede minor (below the ankle) or major (above or below the knee) amputation....

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DKA and HHS

You’ve found a patient is¬†hyperglycaemic¬†& either they are ketotic or have significant hyperglycaemia (>30mmol/L) and so you suspect DKA or HHS respectively. Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA)...

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Fluid Balance

Almost every patient admitted to hospital receives IV fluids at some point in their journey. However, the body manages this, without the need for careful...

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Hypercalcaemia

Serum calcium concentration is tightly regulated between 2.1-2.6mmol/L. Severe hypercalcaemia is a life-threatening electrolyte emergency requiring prompt recognition and urgent treatment.  Do check out our...

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Hyperglycaemia

Hyperglycaemia is something you will encounter frequently. In this article, we focus on how to approach hyperglycaemia and identify diabetic emergencies. If your patient is...

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Hypernatraemia

Hypernatraemia is defined as a sodium above 145 mmol/L with severe being more than 150 mmol/L. Usually, hypernatraemia is a “not enough water” problem –...

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Hypertension in Hospital

As a junior doctor, you will often be called about patients with raised blood pressure (BP) in secondary care. This differs from chronic hypertension in...

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Hypocalcaemia

Acute hypocalcaemia that is severe (<1.9 mmol/L) or symptomatic can be life-threatening and necessitates urgent treatment. It is often initially picked up when a patient...

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Hypoglycaemia

In this article, we provide a quick overview of how to treat and investigate the cause of patients with hypoglycaemia. Definition In diabetics, <4 mmol/L...

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Hyponatraemia

Hyponatraemia (serum Sodium <135 mmol/L) is one of the most common electrolyte abnormalities you will see and so a systematic approach to identifying the underlying...

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Hypophosphataemia

The UK Medicines Information group have provided excellent guidance on how to replace phosphate. Clinical features Generally asymptomatic if mild Can cause many systemic features...

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Medications in Diabetes

In this article, we’ll cover the treatments used in Diabetes Mellitus. We’ll look at key things you need to know about each therapy, when you...

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Thyroid Disease

As a junior, you will frequently see patients who potentially have thyroid dysfunction. The problem is these patients often present with quite generalised symptoms and...

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Giveaway!

We’re giving away “Sweet & Salty” our course covering essentials in Diabetes & Electrolytes.¬†