Emergencies

Haematological emergencies
Haematological emergencies
In this article, we give an overview of the most important and serious haematological...
Fluid Balance
Fluid Balance
Almost every patient admitted to hospital receives IV fluids at some point in their...
IV fluids
Prescribing IV Fluids
There are certain situations where you need to prescribe IV fluids which vary from...
Insulin
Hyperglycaemia
Hyperglycaemia is something you will encounter frequently. In this article, we focus...
Hypoxia
Hypoxia
As an FY1, you will be called to review hypoxic ward patients. Here we discuss common...
Blood Gas
ABG Interpretation
In this article, we will look at more practical aspects of how to read an ABG and...
Hyponatraemia
Hyponatraemia
Hyponatraemia (serum Sodium <135 mmol/L) is one of the most common electrolyte...
Emergencies
Deteriorating Patient
The deteriorating patient is often the worst nightmare for new FY1s.  I remember...
Drowsy
Reduced GCS
As a doctor, you will frequently be called for a drowsy patient. They can vary from...
Hypoglycaemia
Hypoglycaemia
Management of low blood sugar in conscious & unconscious patients, finding common...
Delirium
Delirium
Acute confusion, otherwise known as delirium, is very common in hospitals: 20-30%...
Femoral Stab
Femoral Stab
Femoral puncture is typically used to acquire blood from a patient in an emergency...
Chest Pain
Chest Pain
As a junior doctor, you will also often assess patients complaining of chest pain...
Seizures
Seizures
Scenario: You are bleeped by one of the staff nurses to review a patient on the orthopaedic...
Atrial Fibrillation
Atrial Fibrillation
AF is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia you will encounter. In this article,...
Hypotension
Hypotension
Expect many bleeps about hypotension from concerned nursing staff. It is a useful...
NIV
Non-Invasive Ventilation
Non-invasive ventilation is a way of providing ventilatory support to patients in...
Stroke
Acute Stroke
A stroke is a serious life-threatening medical condition that occurs when the blood...
Upper GI bleed
Upper GI bleed
These patients have the potential to become haemodynamically unstable extremely quickly;...
Hyperkalaemia
Hyperkalaemia
Hyperkalaemia can cause life-threatening emergencies particularly cardiac arrhythmias....
Sepsis
Sepsis
Sepsis is an infection with evidence of organ dysfunction. Septic shock is when a...
Diabetes
DKA and HHS
You’ve found a patient is hyperglycaemic & either they are ketotic or have...
PR Bleeding
PR Bleeding
The first thing when called is to identify whether the bleeding is truly a lower...
COPD
Acute COPD exacerbation
As an FY1, you are unlikely to be expected to make decisions about long term COPD...
Haematuria
Haematuria
You will regularly see patients with blood in their urine, most often picked up incidentally...
Pulmonary embolism
Pulmonary embolism
A pulmonary embolism (PE) is a blocked blood vessel in your lungs, most often due...
Heart Failure
Heart Failure
Heart Failure is not a diagnosis in itself, rather a collection of symptoms that...
Pneumothorax
Pneumothorax
A pneumothorax is defined as the abnormal collection of air between the visceral...
Pulmonary Oedema
Pulmonary Oedema
RCEM has published some clear and comprehensive information which is well worth a...
Asthma
Acute Asthma
You are unlikely to be expected to make decisions about long term asthma management,...
Compartment Syndrome
Compartment Syndrome
Acute Compartment Syndrome is one of the few orthopaedic emergencies. If missed,...
Red Eye
Red Eye
Red eye is one of the most common eye presentations you will encounter. Whilst many...
Parkinson’s Disease
Parkinson’s Disease
In this article, we will present several common scenarios involving Parkinson’s disease...
Anaphylaxis
Anaphylaxis
Anaphylaxis is a serious, life-threatening allergic reaction. Features include airway...
Alcohol Withdrawal
Alcohol Withdrawal
Suddenly stopping alcohol intake in patients who have been drinking heavily for prolonged...
Hypothermia
Hypothermia
Hypothermia, whilst an infrequently encountered issue during foundation, is a high-risk...
Opiate overdose & toxicity
Opiate overdose & toxicity
You will likely encounter an opiate overdose due to the prevalence of opiates for...
ENT
ENT Emergencies
In this article, we cover the main ENT situations you are likely to encounter either...
Neutropenic Sepsis
Neutropenic Sepsis
Please read an overview of the management of sepsis before reading this article....
Opiate Withdrawal
Opiate Withdrawal
As doctors, you will frequently see patients with opiate dependence. It isn’t...
Airway
Difficult Airway Patients
As a doctor, you may come across patients with complex airways. They should be found...
CNS Infections
CNS Infections
A CNS infection is one that involves the central nervous system in some way. This...
Sharps Injuries
Sharps Injuries
Sharps injuries happen when you least expect them. You can’t always prevent them...
Spinal Cord
Metastatic Spinal Cord Compression
Spinal cord compression occurs when there is compression of the spinal cord or cauda...
Dental Traumatology
Introduction to Dental Traumatology for A&E
This article aims to give basic information on the assessment of dental trauma to...
Sickle Cell Disease
Sickle Cell Disease
Sickle cell diseases are a disorder of haemoglobin affecting red blood cells. This...
Bradyarrythmias
Bradyarrhythmias
Bradyarrhythmias are abnormal heart rhythms with a pulse rate of <60 beats per...

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