Emergencies

Drowsy

Reduced GCS

As a doctor, you will frequently be called for a drowsy patient. They can vary from confused to completely unconscious.

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Microbiology

CNS Infections

A CNS infection is one that involves the central nervous system in some way. This includes the meninges, cerebellum, ventricular

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Respiratory

Anaphylaxis

Anaphylaxis is a serious, life-threatening allergic reaction. Features include airway compromise, breathing or circulation difficulties and skin changes. Skin changes

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Hypothermia

Hypothermia

Hypothermia, whilst an infrequently encountered issue during foundation, is a high-risk condition with a need for investigation and often rapid

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Respiratory

Acute Asthma

You are unlikely to be expected to make decisions about long term asthma management, therefore focus your efforts on learning

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Red Eye

Red Eye

Red eye is one of the most common eye presentations you will encounter. Whilst many will likely be referred to

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Gastroenterology

Upper GI bleed

These patients have the potential to become haemodynamically unstable extremely quickly; try to avoid delays in reviewing them. In-hospital mortality

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Diabetes

Hypoglycaemia

In this article, we provide a quick overview of how to treat and investigate the cause of patients with hypoglycaemia.

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Diabetes

DKA and HHS

You’ve found a patient is hyperglycaemic & either they are ketotic or have significant hyperglycaemia (>30mmol/L) and so you suspect DKA or

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Haematuria

Haematuria

You will regularly see patients with blood in their urine, most often picked up incidentally on a urine drip. Your

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Microbiology

Sepsis

Sepsis is an infection with evidence of organ dysfunction. Septic shock is when a patient with sepsis is hypotensive despite

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Electrolytes

Hyperkalaemia

Hyperkalaemia can cause life-threatening emergencies particularly cardiac arrhythmias. A widely used definition is extracellular [K+] ion concentration ≥ 5.5 mmol/L.

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Cardiology

Heart Failure

Heart Failure is not a diagnosis in itself, rather a collection of symptoms that require investigation to find the underlying

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Abnormal Observations

Hypotension

Expect many bleeps about hypotension from concerned nursing staff. It is a useful way to flag up which patients might

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Geriatrics

Delirium

Acute confusion, otherwise known as delirium, is very common in hospitals: 20-30% on medical wards, and between 10-50% of those

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Radiology

Pneumothorax

A pneumothorax is defined as the abnormal collection of air between the visceral and parietal space of the lung i.e.

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Neurology

Seizures

Scenario: You are bleeped by one of the staff nurses to review a patient on the orthopaedic ward who is

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Chest Pain

Chest Pain

As a junior doctor, you will also often assess patients complaining of chest pain in the acute admissions setting and

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Insulin

Hyperglycaemia

Hyperglycaemia is something you will encounter frequently. In this article, we focus on how to approach hyperglycaemia and identify diabetic

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Electrolytes

Hyponatraemia

Hyponatraemia (serum Sodium <135 mmol/L) is one of the most common electrolyte abnormalities you will see and so a systematic

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Procedures

Femoral Stab

Femoral puncture is typically used to acquire blood from a patient in an emergency setting as both the veins and

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Respiratory

Hypoxia

As an FY1, you will be called to review hypoxic ward patients. Here we discuss common causes of generalised hypoxia

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Fluid Balance

Fluid Balance

Almost every patient admitted to hospital receives IV fluids at some point in their journey. However, the body manages this,

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