Electrolytes

Gastroenterology

Nutrition

Nutrition is an important aspect of a patient’s health and is overlooked during medical school as you are learning exciting

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Electrolytes

Hypocalcaemia

Acute hypocalcaemia that is severe (<1.9 mmol/L) or symptomatic can be life-threatening and necessitates urgent treatment. It is often initially

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Gastroenterology

Refeeding Syndrome

Defined as a collection of electrolyte abnormalities associated with a massive intracellular shift of electrolytes. Associated with aggressive nutritional rehabilitation

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Electrolytes

Hypercalcaemia

Serum calcium concentration is tightly regulated between 2.1-2.6mmol/L. Severe hypercalcaemia is a life-threatening electrolyte emergency requiring prompt recognition and urgent

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Electrolytes

Hyperkalaemia

Hyperkalaemia can cause life-threatening emergencies particularly cardiac arrhythmias. A widely used definition is extracellular [K+] ion concentration ≥ 5.5 mmol/L.

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Electrolytes

Hyponatraemia

Hyponatraemia (serum Sodium <135 mmol/L) is one of the most common electrolyte abnormalities you will see and so a systematic

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Fluid Balance

Fluid Balance

Almost every patient admitted to hospital receives IV fluids at some point in their journey. However, the body manages this,

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