Electrolytes

Fluid Balance

Almost every patient admitted to hospital receives IV fluids at some point in their journey. However, the body manages this, without the need for careful...

Read More

Hypercalcaemia

Serum calcium concentration is tightly regulated between 2.1-2.6mmol/L. Severe hypercalcaemia is a life-threatening electrolyte emergency requiring prompt recognition and urgent treatment.  Do check out our...

Read More

Hyperkalaemia

Hyperkalaemia can cause life-threatening emergencies particularly cardiac arrhythmias. A widely used definition is extracellular [K+] ion concentration ≥ 5.5 mmol/L. Complications increase with severity and...

Read More

Hypernatraemia

Hypernatraemia is defined as a sodium above 145 mmol/L with severe being more than 150 mmol/L. Usually, hypernatraemia is a “not enough water” problem –...

Read More

Hypocalcaemia

Acute hypocalcaemia that is severe (<1.9 mmol/L) or symptomatic can be life-threatening and necessitates urgent treatment. It is often initially picked up when a patient...

Read More

Hypokalaemia

As an FY1 you will frequently see hypokalaemia and most trusts have guidelines that should be used in the first instance. The advice below is...

Read More

Hypomagnesaemia

The UK Medicines Information group have provided excellent guidance on how to replace magnesium.Useful advice on treatment: Clinical features Usually asymptomatic Irritability & lethargy Nausea/vomiting Psychiatric: confusion,...

Read More

Hyponatraemia

Hyponatraemia (serum Sodium <135 mmol/L) is one of the most common electrolyte abnormalities you will see and so a systematic approach to identifying the underlying...

Read More

Hypophosphataemia

The UK Medicines Information group have provided excellent guidance on how to replace phosphate. Clinical features Generally asymptomatic if mild Can cause many systemic features...

Read More

Nutrition

Nutrition is an important aspect of a patient’s health and is overlooked during medical school as you are learning exciting pathophysiology of weird and wonderful...

Read More

Refeeding Syndrome

Defined as a collection of electrolyte abnormalities associated with a massive intracellular shift of electrolytes. Associated with aggressive nutritional rehabilitation of malnourished patients in e.g....

Read More
Scroll to Top

Giveaway!

We’re giving away “Sweet & Salty” our course covering essentials in Diabetes & Electrolytes.