Category: Ophthalmology

Dry and Wet Age-Related Macular Degeneration (ARMD)

Introduction With an increase in the ageing population globally, we will be seeing more diseases that typically affect elderly patients. One such condition is age-related macular degeneration (ARMD). AMRD is an acquired degeneration of the retina, specifically the macula, that usually affects the central vision initially. Classically people in their 50s-60s are first affected, and

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Removal of foreign body from eye

Foreign body in eye is a very common presentation seen in the emergency department. Patients often complain of a foreign body sensation in the eye and pain on eye movement or on blinking. There may be a history of trauma or using tools, but it can also be caused by things such as eyelashes in

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Study Tips for the Duke-Elder Undergraduate Prize Exam

The Duke-Elder Undergraduate Prize Exam is an optional competitive exam run by the Royal College of Ophthalmologists, designed for undergraduate medical students who have an interest in Ophthalmology. It is amongst the most prestigious undergraduate prizes in the United Kingdom and attracts hundreds of applicants per year. However, most students will have little or no

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Overview of eye drops

Medicines reconciliation is the process of accurately listing a person’s medicines. This often takes place when they’re admitted into a service and is an important day to day job of a junior doctor. It has been demonstrated that patients admitted to the hospital for non-ophthalmic reasons do not always receive their eye drops as prescribed.

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Diplopia

Diplopia, also known as double vision, happens when there is a mismatch in images produced by the two eyes; hence there is misalignment in the images produced. Diplopia can be subdivided into monocular and binocular, and horizontal and vertical. Binocular diplopia (89%) is far more common than monocular diplopia. Aetiology can be attributed to ophthalmological

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How to use an Ophthalmoscope

Being able to use an ophthalmoscope confidently is very important to junior doctors, especially when identifying eye emergencies. In this article, we will go through the steps of eye examination using an ophthalmoscope. When is ophthalmoscopy used? In clinical practice, ophthalmoscopy is commonly performed for posterior segment diseases affecting the vitreous, macula, retina or optic

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Sudden Visual Loss

Loss of vision can be a scary symptom for patients to experience, and a scary presentation for doctors to manage! You will not be expected to know the causes in detail. However, some knowledge of the following conditions will help you to risk-stratify patients. These patients will most likely require an urgent referral to your

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Applying to Ophthalmology

Ophthalmology provides a great deal of variety by combining medicine, surgery & A&E. It is predominantly an outpatient specialty with plenty of opportunities to subspecialise. Competition for posts, however, can be quite fierce and hence a strong portfolio may be necessary to secure your place. Why Ophthalmology? Ophthalmology involves intricate microsurgery that can often provide

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Red Eye

Red eye is one of the most common eye presentations you will encounter. Whilst many will likely be referred to an opthalmologist or senior clinician, it’s important to know what common cases you are likely to encounter and how to manage them. One of the main factors is to distinguish whether the red eye is

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Eye History & Exam

This is intended for junior doctors on the ward or in ED, covering how to approach the eye history & exam as it is often poorly taught at medical school or in an OSCE. HistoryA detailed history allows the ophthalmologist to triage patients appropriately. In addition to the classic clerking, important red flags meriting discussion

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