Category: General Surgery
The groin, also known as the inguinal region, extends from the anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) anterolaterally, the thigh inferiorly and the pubic tubercle medially. It is an anatomical region vulnerable to surgical pathology due to a weakening of the abdominal wall occurring during embryology.
In this article, we cover common benign anorectal pathologies including haemorrhoids, fissures & fistulas with a quick overview of their assessment & management. Basic anatomy Anatomical position of anus is described by a clock in the lithotomy position (lying on back with legs apart, pubic symphysis is 12 o’clock, coccyx is 6 o’clock) Internal anal
Diverticulae can occur throughout the gastrointestinal tract but are more common in the sigmoid & descending colon. Whilst frequently found, usually, it is incidental and not contributing to the presentation of the patient in front of you. In this article, we will take you through the spectrum of presentations & give an overview of the
Chronic pancreatitis is characterised by repeated pancreatic inflammation. This leads to the destruction of pancreatic tissue leading to irreversible loss of both endocrine and exocrine function and formation of calcifications, pseudocysts and fibrosis. Risk factors The most common causes of chronic pancreatitis are alcohol and smoking. It is estimated that alcohol causes up to 80%
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) refers to a relapsing and remitting inflammatory disorder of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, which may be accompanied by extra-GI manifestations. What are the main types of IBD? The term IBD encompasses two types: ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD). CD can affect any part of the GI tract, although in
NG tubes are passed from the nose to the stomach. Depending on the material, they can stay between 2 to 6 weeks. However, they quite easily can fall out either being accidentally tugged at night or the tube might get caught. Due to this, they sometimes fall out within a week or two. Wide-bore NGT
The word stoma comes from Greek to mean “an opening”. There are many types which are formed for a variety of reasons, but here we will focus on diversions of the urinary or gastrointestinal tract to the abdominal wall. These can be temporary or permanent and their purpose is predominantly the diversion of waste products.
The advantages of AXRs are far less radiation to patients & that they’re logistically easy to organise out of hours. Unlike CTs they do not need to be discussed with the on-call radiologist but they aren’t reported as quickly therefore it is crucial you can interpret them. The most common indication for an AXR is