Category: Haematology

Haematological emergencies

In this article, we give an overview of the most important and serious haematological emergencies that junior doctors should know about! Neutropenic sepsis Case 1: 54-year-old woman Recent new diagnosis of a high-grade lymphoma Received R-CHOP chemotherapy 7 days ago Presents to ED with a fever of 38c What could be going on here? What

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Sickle Cell Disease

Sickle cell diseases are a disorder of haemoglobin affecting red blood cells. This autosomal recessive, single gene defect results in the formation of HbS (sickle cell haemoglobin). Types of Sickle Cell Disorders Sickle cell trait: heterozygous (AS) which is typically asymptomatic & usually not life-limiting Sickle cell anaemia: homozygous (SS) which leads to many complications

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Interpreting Blood Films

A blood film looks at our three cell types (erythrocytes, leukocytes & platelets) under a microscope to identify any abnormalities to give visual clues regarding the functional state of the bone marrow & any systemic diseases. You should treat this article as a reference for where you can read up on differentials based on the

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Anaemia

Perhaps the most common blood test you will review daily will be the FBC (full blood count). You will commonly see a low haemoglobin & the tendency is to say “haemoglobin stable” and ignore it. However, both acute or chronic anaemia can have a significant impact on health but can also be the presenting sign

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Deep Vein Thrombosis

A deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a condition in which a blood clot (thrombosis) forms within a deep vein and can be provoked or unprovoked [1]. 2.5-5% of the population will have a DVT in their lifetime [2]. Virchow’s triad explains the relationship between venous stasis, hypercoagulability and endothelial vessel wall in increasing the risk

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Anticoagulation

For new doctors, prescribing anticoagulants can be daunting. A few simple rules can make this easier. Ensure you use your local guidelines in the first instance, which often provides information on first-line agents and dosing. The information below may be incorrect and so hence, as per our disclaimer, do use your own clinical judgement. The

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Transfusion

In this article, we will go through the three most common scenarios you will encounter. These are: (1) Does this patient need a transfusion? (2) Can you group & save or transfuse this patient? (3) This patient may be having a transfusion reaction, could you please advise? Scenario 1: Does this patient need a transfusion?

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Neutropenic Sepsis

Please read an overview of the management of sepsis before reading this article. Neutropenic sepsis is defined as a temperature of greater than 38°C or any symptoms and/or signs of sepsis, in a person with an absolute neutrophil count of 0.5 x 109/L or lower. It is a common and potentially life-threatening complication of neutropenia.

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