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Epistaxis

Epistaxis

Epistaxis is a common presentation, especially amongst the young and elderly population. Knowing the basic management, red flags, and when

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Clock

Working Less Than Full Time

ContentsWorking LTFT in FY1/FY2Eligibility for LTFT trainingCategory 1: Trainees with health conditions and caring responsibilitiesCategory 2: Trainees with unique opportunities

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Gynaecology

Vaginal Bleeding

One of the most common obstetric/gynaecological presentations in a hospital/GP setting is vaginal bleeding. When women present with per vaginal

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Gastroenterology

Nutrition

Nutrition is an important aspect of a patient’s health and is overlooked during medical school as you are learning exciting

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Surgery

Groin Lumps

The groin, also known as the inguinal region, extends from the anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) anterolaterally, the thigh inferiorly and the pubic tubercle medially. It is an anatomical region vulnerable to surgical pathology due to a weakening of the abdominal wall occurring during embryology.

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Loan

Consumer Loans

It’s important for healthcare professionals to have an understanding of the different loans which are available – to help them

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HIV

HIV

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a species of lentivirus that can infect humans and subsequently causes Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS).

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Endocrinology

Thyroid Disease

As a junior, you will frequently see patients who potentially have thyroid dysfunction. The problem is these patients often present

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Hypothermia

Hypothermia

Hypothermia, whilst an infrequently encountered issue during foundation, is a high-risk condition with a need for investigation and often rapid

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Respiratory

Anaphylaxis

Anaphylaxis is a serious, life-threatening allergic reaction. Features include airway compromise, breathing or circulation difficulties and skin changes. Skin changes

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Mental Health 1

Psychosis

Psychosis refers to patients suffering a loss of contact with reality. It affects 3 out of 100 people in their

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Pancreatitis

Pancreatitis

Pancreatitis is a condition characterised by the inflammation of the pancreas. These patients are usually managed conservatively. Your aim is

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Illness

Sore Throat

One of the most common A&E presentations is a sore throat, and while sore throat seems like a pretty straightforward

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Headache

Headache

Acute headache is a common complaint that you’ll see whilst on the wards or in the acute take. Although most

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Back Pain

Back Pain

In this article, we cover the assessment and management of back pain. This article forms part of a series on

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Cannula

Cannulation

Demonstration video thanks to Geeky Medics Equipment Gloves Hand sanitiser Tourniquet Appropriate size cannula  Alcohol swab Gauze Syringe  0.9% sodium

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Respiratory

Acute Asthma

You are unlikely to be expected to make decisions about long term asthma management, therefore focus your efforts on learning

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AXR

Bowel Obstruction

Bowel obstruction is a common reason for admission or complication of patients under the surgical team, but doctors don’t frequently

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Blood Tests

Venepuncture

Equipment Gloves Hand sanitiser Alcohol wipe Tourniquet Cotton wool/ gauze Needle Syringe or vacutainer Blood bottles Specimen bag Plaster or

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Geriatrics

Dementia

As an FY1 in hospital, you will come across lots of patients with dementia. They often have multiple problems requiring

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Kidney Stone

Kidney Stones

Given how frequently patients present with renal colic, it is helpful for FY1s to understand the basic management. Specifically, this

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Diabetic Foot Ulcer

Diabetic Foot Ulcers

Introduction: Diabetic foot ulcerations are a significant complication of diabetes and often precede minor (below the ankle) or major (above or below the knee) amputation. At least 2% of people with diabetes experience new foot ulcers annually, and of these, one in 400 undergoes amputation (Kerr, M. 2019)

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Intestines

Stomas

The word stoma comes from Greek to mean “an opening”. There are many types which are formed for a variety

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Haematology

Transfusion

In this article, we will go through the three most common scenarios you will encounter. These are: (1) Does this

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Red Eye

Red Eye

Red eye is one of the most common eye presentations you will encounter. Whilst many will likely be referred to

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Cardiology

Palpitations

Palpitations can be described as the sensation of an abnormally received heartbeat. It can be rapid, irregular, forceful or just

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Abnormal Observations

Syncope

From the Greek: Syn: together & kopein: to cut – referring to a block in blood supply from the body to the brain, most often due a drop in systemic blood pressure. It is defined as (1) temporary and transient (2) a form of loss of consciousness…

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Haematuria

Haematuria

You will regularly see patients with blood in their urine, most often picked up incidentally on a urine drip. Your

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Cardiology

Heart Failure

Heart Failure is not a diagnosis in itself, rather a collection of symptoms that require investigation to find the underlying

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Pneumonia

Pneumonia

In this article, we will focus on more practical concerns when managing a patient with pneumonia for junior doctors. Covid-19

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Electrolytes

Hypercalcaemia

Serum calcium concentration is tightly regulated between 2.1-2.6mmol/L. Severe hypercalcaemia is a life-threatening electrolyte emergency requiring prompt recognition and urgent

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Diabetes

DKA and HHS

You’ve found a patient is hyperglycaemic & either they are ketotic or have significant hyperglycaemia (>30mmol/L) and so you suspect DKA or

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Haematology

Anaemia

Perhaps the most common blood test you will review daily will be the FBC (full blood count). You will commonly

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Radiology

Pneumothorax

A pneumothorax is defined as the abnormal collection of air between the visceral and parietal space of the lung i.e.

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Electrolytes

Hyperkalaemia

Hyperkalaemia can cause life-threatening emergencies particularly cardiac arrhythmias. A widely used definition is extracellular [K+] ion concentration ≥ 5.5 mmol/L.

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Gastroenterology

Upper GI bleed

These patients have the potential to become haemodynamically unstable extremely quickly; try to avoid delays in reviewing them. In-hospital mortality

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Microbiology

Sepsis

Sepsis is an infection with evidence of organ dysfunction. Septic shock is when a patient with sepsis is hypotensive despite

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Gynaecology

Applying to Obstetrics and Gynaecology

In this article, we discuss why you should apply to O&G training, how to build your portfolio & we detail the application process. O&G is a 7 year run-through programme, incorporating a core curriculum with ultrasound training & there are plenty of opportunities to subspecialise.

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Constipation

Constipation

Constipation is one of the most common complaints in hospital, especially on the geriatric wards.Failure to treat constipation can lead

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Cardiology

ECG Basics

The electrocardiogram (ECG) is one of the most common, and important, investigations interpreted by doctors. In order to help the

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Neurology

Seizures

Scenario: You are bleeped by one of the staff nurses to review a patient on the orthopaedic ward who is

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Diabetes

Hypoglycaemia

Management of low blood sugar in conscious & unconscious patients, finding common causes, adjusting medications & when to refer.

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Procedures

Femoral Stab

Femoral puncture is typically used to acquire blood from a patient in an emergency setting as both the veins and

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Chest Pain

Chest Pain

As a junior doctor, you will also often assess patients complaining of chest pain in the acute admissions setting and

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Geriatrics

Delirium

Acute confusion, otherwise known as delirium, is very common in hospitals: 20-30% on medical wards, and between 10-50% of those

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Handover

Handover

Handover occurs between shifts to ensure everyone is up to speed with patients. The exact nature of how it occurs

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Abnormal Observations

Hypotension

Expect many bleeps about hypotension from concerned nursing staff. It is a useful way to flag up which patients might

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Locums

Writing SLEs

SLEs are supervised learning events that include Mini-CEX (mini clinical evaluation exercise) CBD (case-based discussion) DOPS (direct observation of procedural

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Self Discharge

Self-discharge

Frequently patients wish to self-discharge from hospitals. This article pertains to adult patients only (18y+) and these patients can be

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Electrolytes

Hyponatraemia

Hyponatraemia (serum Sodium <135 mmol/L) is one of the most common electrolyte abnormalities you will see and so a systematic

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Locums

Documentation

Medical documentation should authentically represent every consultation and is primarily intended to support patient care. Good record-keeping means you or

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Insulin

Hyperglycaemia

Hyperglycaemia is something you will encounter frequently. In this article, we focus on how to approach hyperglycaemia and identify diabetic

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Falls

Falls

As an F1, you will quite frequently get bleeped to review a patient who has had a fall on the

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Respiratory

Hypoxia

As an FY1, you will be called to review hypoxic ward patients. Here we discuss common causes of generalised hypoxia

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Drowsy

Reduced GCS

As a doctor, you will frequently be called for a drowsy patient. They can vary from confused to completely unconscious.

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Locums

ePortfolio

Your eportfolio is a tool to store and record evidence that demonstrates your progress, clinical competencies and reflections. Try to

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Leave

Leave

As an FY1 doctor, there are different types of leave you will come across during the year and the rest

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Fluid Balance

Fluid Balance

Almost every patient admitted to hospital receives IV fluids at some point in their journey. However, the body manages this,

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Gastroenterology

Refeeding Syndrome

Defined as a collection of electrolyte abnormalities associated with a massive intracellular shift of electrolytes. Associated with aggressive nutritional rehabilitation

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Gastroenterology

Chronic Pancreatitis

Chronic pancreatitis is characterised by repeated pancreatic inflammation. This leads to the destruction of pancreatic tissue leading to irreversible loss

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Ophthamology

Diplopia

Diplopia, also known as double vision, happens when there is a mismatch in images produced by the two eyes; hence

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Illness

Coping with illness

ContentsImportant things to rememberOccupational healthThe legal stuffFurther reading Important things to remember You will get sick. That is life. You’re

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Vertigo

Vertigo

Vertigo is described as an “abnormal sensation of motion. It can occur in the absence of motion or when motion

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Gastroenterology

PEG Tubes

PEG tubes are used as long term feeding options (and medication administration) for those in whom NG tubes are unsuitable

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Rheumatology

Arthralgia

There are three joint pain calls you might receive whilst you’re on call or on the wards. We have split

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Procedures

Suturing

Sutures are placed to aid with wound healing following a traumatic laceration or surgical incision and to promote haemostasis. In

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Intestines

Colorectal Cancer and Polyps

Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancer types seen in the western world. They are adenocarcinomas arising from adenomatous polyps in the colon and rectum, with a majority seen on the left side of the colon.

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Microbiology

CNS Infections

A CNS infection is one that involves the central nervous system in some way. This includes the meninges, cerebellum, ventricular

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General Surgery

Appendicitis

Appendicitis is a one of the most common abdominal emergencies worldwide. Your aim is to be able to diagnose it, distinguish between simple and complex cases and optimise medical management whilst your seniors decide on the timing of surgery.

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Geriatrics

Applying to Geriatric Medicine

Within Geriatric Medicine you are always working as part of a multidisciplinary team and have lots of close interactions with other allied health professionals. In my experience, this means plenty of opportunity for discussion and shared decision making with colleagues, as well as being able to gain knowledge and learn from others’ expertise. This also creates a very supportive environment to work in.

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Electrolytes

Hypocalcaemia

Acute hypocalcaemia that is severe (<1.9 mmol/L) or symptomatic can be life-threatening and necessitates urgent treatment. It is often initially

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Psychiatry

Self Harm

The most common place you will see a patient who has self-harmed is in ED, where they have been referred

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E Coli

Diarrhoea

Diarrhoea is a very common complaint and may be the reason for a patient’s admission, or develop as a new

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