Abnormal Observations

Blood Gas
ABG Interpretation
In this article, we will look at more practical aspects of how to read an ABG and...
Hyponatraemia
Hyponatraemia
Hyponatraemia (serum Sodium <135 mmol/L) is one of the most common electrolyte...
Ascitic Tap and Drain
Ascitic Tap and Drain
Ascitic aspiration (tap) is routinely performed for every patient admitted with ascites...
Acute Kidney Injury
Acute Kidney Injury
AKI is very common affecting around 20% of inpatients & it is important to recognise...
Reviewing and Requesting Bloods
Reviewing and Requesting Bloods
Here we focus on blood tests requests for a variety of common scenarios you might...
Hypokalaemia
Hypokalaemia
As an FY1 you will frequently see hypokalaemia and most trusts have guidelines that...
Interpreting Blood Films
Interpreting Blood Films
A blood film looks at our three cell types (erythrocytes, leukocytes & platelets)...
Hypercalcaemia
Hypercalcaemia
Serum calcium concentration is tightly regulated between 2.1-2.6mmol/L. Severe hypercalcaemia...
Jaundice
Jaundice & Deranged LFTs
As the FY1, you will see patients with liver dysfunction either on the take or deranged...
Chest X-Rays
Chest X-Rays
In this article, we focus on the interpretation of a CXR. Have a low threshold to...
Paracetamol Overdose
Paracetamol Overdose
As an FY1, you will encounter these either during clerking shifts or you may look...
Hyperkalaemia
Hyperkalaemia
Hyperkalaemia can cause life-threatening emergencies particularly cardiac arrhythmias....
Anaemia
Anaemia
Perhaps the most common blood test you will review daily will be the FBC (full blood...
Haematuria
Haematuria
You will regularly see patients with blood in their urine, most often picked up incidentally...
Hypernatraemia
Hypernatraemia
Hypernatraemia is defined as a sodium above 145 mmol/L with severe being more than...
Interpreting CSF Results
Interpreting CSF Results
Understanding how to do an LP and interpret the results is an essential skill for...
Hypomagnesaemia
Hypomagnesaemia
The UK Medicines Information group have provided excellent guidance on...
Refeeding Syndrome
Refeeding Syndrome
Defined as a collection of electrolyte abnormalities associated with a massive intracellular...
Hypophosphataemia
Hypophosphataemia
The UK Medicines Information group have provided excellent guidance on how to replace...
Hypocalcaemia
Hypocalcaemia
Alongside strengthening bone, calcium is used in the clotting cascade, in muscle...

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