Abnormal Observations

Deteriorating Patient

The deteriorating patient is often the worst nightmare for new FY1s.  I remember when I started FY1, I was terrified of coming across a deteriorating...

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Fluid Balance

Almost every patient admitted to hospital receives IV fluids at some point in their journey. However, the body manages this, without the need for careful...

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Hyperglycaemia

Hyperglycaemia is something you will encounter frequently. In this article, we focus on how to approach hyperglycaemia and identify diabetic emergencies. If your patient is...

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Hypertension in Hospital

As a junior doctor, you will often be called about patients with raised blood pressure (BP) in secondary care. This differs from chronic hypertension in...

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Hypoglycaemia

In this article, we provide a quick overview of how to treat and investigate the cause of patients with hypoglycaemia. Definition In diabetics, <4 mmol/L...

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Hypotension

Expect many bleeps about hypotension from concerned nursing staff. It is a useful way to flag up which patients might be unwell. Although defined as...

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Hypothermia

Hypothermia, whilst an infrequently encountered issue during foundation, is a high-risk condition with a need for investigation and often rapid intervention. It is defined as...

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Hypoxia

As an FY1, you will be called to review hypoxic ward patients. Here we discuss common causes of generalised hypoxia and not focal hypoxia/ischaemia such...

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Reduced GCS

As a doctor, you will frequently be called for a drowsy patient. They can vary from confused to completely unconscious. The Glasgow Coma Scale can...

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