Abnormal Investigations

ABG Interpretation

In this article, we will look at more practical aspects of how to read an ABG and treatment following your interpretation. If you’re looking on...

Read More

Acute Kidney Injury

AKI is very common affecting around 20% of inpatients & it is important to recognise promptly and correctly to avoid complications. In this article, we...

Read More

Anaemia

Perhaps the most common blood test you will review daily will be the FBC (full blood count). You will commonly see a low haemoglobin &...

Read More

Ascitic Tap and Drain

Ascitic aspiration (tap) is routinely performed for every patient admitted with ascites to identify the underlying cause. The most urgent reason to do it would...

Read More

Chest X-Rays

In this article, we focus on the interpretation of a CXR. Have a low threshold to request one as they provide a lot of information...

Read More

Haematuria

You will regularly see patients with blood in their urine, most often picked up incidentally on a urine drip. Your initial assessment should aim to...

Read More

Hypercalcaemia

Serum calcium concentration is tightly regulated between 2.1-2.6mmol/L. Severe hypercalcaemia is a life-threatening electrolyte emergency requiring prompt recognition and urgent treatment.  Do check out our...

Read More

Hyperkalaemia

Hyperkalaemia can cause life-threatening emergencies particularly cardiac arrhythmias. A widely used definition is extracellular [K+] ion concentration ≥ 5.5 mmol/L. Complications increase with severity and...

Read More

Hypernatraemia

Hypernatraemia is defined as a sodium above 145 mmol/L with severe being more than 150 mmol/L. Usually, hypernatraemia is a “not enough water” problem –...

Read More

Hypocalcaemia

Acute hypocalcaemia that is severe (<1.9 mmol/L) or symptomatic can be life-threatening and necessitates urgent treatment. It is often initially picked up when a patient...

Read More

Hypokalaemia

As an FY1 you will frequently see hypokalaemia and most trusts have guidelines that should be used in the first instance. The advice below is...

Read More

Hypomagnesaemia

The UK Medicines Information group have provided excellent guidance on how to replace magnesium.Useful advice on treatment: Clinical features Usually asymptomatic Irritability & lethargy Nausea/vomiting Psychiatric: confusion,...

Read More

Hyponatraemia

Hyponatraemia (serum Sodium <135 mmol/L) is one of the most common electrolyte abnormalities you will see and so a systematic approach to identifying the underlying...

Read More

Hypophosphataemia

The UK Medicines Information group have provided excellent guidance on how to replace phosphate. Clinical features Generally asymptomatic if mild Can cause many systemic features...

Read More

Interpreting Blood Films

A blood film looks at our three cell types (erythrocytes, leukocytes & platelets) under a microscope to identify any abnormalities to give visual clues regarding...

Read More

Interpreting CSF Results

Understanding how to do an LP and interpret the results is an essential skill for most doctors, particularly those planning on a hospital-based specialty. You...

Read More

Jaundice & Deranged LFTs

As the FY1, you will see patients with liver dysfunction either on the take or deranged LFTs when you are reviewing bloods. A focused approach...

Read More

Paracetamol Overdose

As an FY1, you will encounter these either during clerking shifts or you may look after them on the ward. As it is quite common,...

Read More

Refeeding Syndrome

Defined as a collection of electrolyte abnormalities associated with a massive intracellular shift of electrolytes. Associated with aggressive nutritional rehabilitation of malnourished patients in e.g....

Read More
Scroll to Top

Giveaway!

We’re giving away “Sweet & Salty” our course covering essentials in Diabetes & Electrolytes.