Defined as a collection of electrolyte abnormalities associated with a massive intracellular shift of electrolytes. Associated with aggressive nutritional rehabilitation of malnourished patients in e.g. malignancy, chronic organ dysfunction, inflammatory conditions (e.g. pancreatitis, colitis), the perioperative period as well as anorexia nervosa.

Clinical Features
Sequelae of hypophosphataemia, hypokalaemia, hypocalcaemia, hypomagnesaemia, e.g.
Congestive heart failure, peripheral oedema, rhabdomyolysis, seizures, haemolysis

Who is at risk?
Patients admitted to hospital typically have their nutrition assessed using the MUST tool (Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool)
  • Patients are at risk if they haven't eaten for about 5 days
  • They are at higher risk if they have a 
    • low BMI
    • have had marked (>10%) weight loss in the last few months
    • poor intake for >10 days
    • have low electrolytes prior to feeding
    • history of alcohol or drug abuse. 
Management
  • Involvement of a dietitian
  • Daily monitoring & replacing electrolytes (see hypophosphataemia, hypomagnesaemia, hypocalcaemia)
  • Vitamin replacement as per trust guidelines (typically IV Pabrinex for 3 days followed by oral vitamin b co strong & thiamine)
  • Slow introduction of nutrition as guided by the dietetics team
Further Reading & References
  • Mehler, P., 2019. Anorexia nervosa in adults and adolescents: the refeeding syndrome. UpToDate, Basow, DS (Ed), UpToDate, Waltham, MA. 
  • Siparsky, N., 2019. Overview of postoperative electrolyte abnormalities. UpToDate, Basow, DS (Ed), UpToDate, Waltham, MA.
By Dr Shoaib Hussain